Dating of the book of daniel
Mt 24: 15 and Mk 13: 14; Mt 26: 64 and Mk 14: 62 and Lk 22: 69; Heb 11: 33-34). The book professes to have been written by Daniel (see 7: 1; 12: 4), to be an account of a historical individual who experienced the exile and lived in Babylon, and to predict future events (e.g., 2: 29-45; 7: 2,15-27; 8: 15-26; 9: 24-27; 10: 14; 11: 2– 12: 4). One of the eight manuscripts of Daniel discovered at Qumran (4QDanc) has been dated to about 125 b.c. Some scholars have argued that there would have been insufficient time for the book of Daniel to have gained such widespread acceptance if it were written only 40 years previously. The Septuagint was the Greek translation of the OT produced in Alexandria, Egypt, that came to be used widely by the Jews of the Diaspora.Scholars generally agree that at least the Pentateuch (first five books) was translated in the middle of the third century b.c., but it is likely that all the Bible books were translated into Greek about the same time.The book demonstrates familiarity with the history and culture of the seventh and sixth centuries B. Daniel rightly portrays the position of Belshazzar, coregent with Nabonidus.He could have appropriately been called ‘king’ (5: 1), but in 5: 16 Belshazzar offered to make the one who could interpret the writing on the wall ‘the third highest ruler in the kingdom.’ As Belshazzar was himself the second ruler, this was the highest honor he could confer.Traditional scholarship holds that Daniel was written in the sixth century BC and is historically reliable, but many modern biblical scholars hold that Daniel was written in the second century BC and is pious fiction.Let’s take a look at some of the evidence offered for the second century date and responses to that evidence by critical scholarship.Walt Kaiser and Duane Garrett, in the Jesus ben Sirach (Sir 44– 50), 1 writing in approximately 180 B.
The Apocryphal book of Judith, for example, written during the reign of Antiochus IV, contains absurd historical blunders and is altogether unlike Daniel.Moreover, even critical scholars date Ezekiel very early. Manweiler writes, Ezekiel is probably the most carefully dated of all Old Testament books…we here note that the majority of biblical scholars, even of those who reject the inspiration and unity of the Bible, believe most of the book was written in the sixth century BC by the prophet Ezekiel..In Sirach he prayed, ‘Hasten the day, and remember the appointed time’— verbiage resembling Daniel 11: 27, 35.
It may be that ben Sirach offhandedly cited Daniel, which of course implies that the book already existed in his lifetime.
While modern critics hold to this perspective, there are a number of reasons for believing in the biblical authorship of Daniel: . If Daniel wasn’t historical, then Jesus was either lying, or he was ignorant. However, Ezekiel places Daniel alongside Noah and Job (Ezek. By contrast, Daniel—the son of Aqhat—from Pagan mythology was a Baal worshipper!